Brief Logic Primer:
Logic is a key factor in writing an effective argument. Admission officers are looking for logical organization in your essays.
Here are the main logic notions:
- Claim. An assertion that is ether true or false.
- Argument. A set of claims with a premise(s) and conclusion.
- Conclusion. Main claim of the argument.
- Premise. Claims that support the argument.
Use indicator to identify either conclusion or premise.
- False dilemmas. Choice between only two possible options.
- Overstated Generalization.
A. Broad statement about a specific group.
B. Superlative (e.g., the most important).
C. Aphoristism (avoid proverbs).
- Appeal to Authority. An argument based on anonymous authority (like based on hearsay).
- Inductive Fallacies. Drawing inference about a population as a whole.
- Hasty Generalization. The sample size is too small to serve as a basis for the conclusion.
- Unrepresentative Sample. Sample that differs in significant ways from the population as a whole.
- False Analogy. Two terms of comparison differ in such a way as to invalidate the inferred commonality.
- Causal Fallacies. Post Hoc, Propter Hoc. The fallacious assumption is that because X came before Y, it caused Y.
X and Y might have independent causes.
X and Y might have the same cause.
X might have been only one of several causes.
- Genuine but insignificant. Putting tooth weight on a real but insignificant cause.
- The fallacy of exclusion. A valid argument must consider all relevant information.
- Slippery Slope. If/then scenario.
Leave a Reply.